(قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ * مَلِكِ النَّاسِ * إِلَٰهِ النَّاسِ * مِنْ شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ * الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ * مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ)
Say, “I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind
The King of mankind
The God of mankind
From the evil of the whisperer who withdraws and pulls back –
Who whispers into the hearts of men –
From among the jinn and mankind.”
Meaning: Say O Muhammad
Meaning: I seek shelter with, I resort to and I take refuge in…
ar-Rabb: He is the one who takes care of his slaves through his blessings and who nurtures them. And He also takes care of them through sending revelation and beneficial knowledge. So He is their Lord in the sense that He is their King, Lord and the One who controls their affairs.
All of Mankind, from the Children of Aadam.
He the Mighty and Majestic said:
This is one of Allaah the Perfect and Most High’s Attributes. So ar-Rabb and al-Malik are from Allaah the Most Glorious’ Names. So they have no true King except Him, the Perfect and Most High and no-one shares in His kingship over all mankind. So they all belong to Him and are His slaves and under His control and authority. Some of them are people who are evil, so one should seek refuge with Allaah the Perfect and Most High that He protects from these evil people, because He is their Lord and He has power over them.
So He is the King, the Perfect and Most High, without any partner, and He has absolute dominion on the Day of Judgement.
As for in this world then there are kings, but their kingship is limited not absolute, and it is weak when compared to the dominion of Allaah the Perfect and Most High. Also their kingship is a privilege from Allaah the Perfect and Most High. He the Mighty and Majestic said:
قُلِ اللَّهُمَّ مَالِكَ الْمُلْكِ تُؤْتِي الْمُلْكَ مَنْ تَشَاءُ وَتَنْزِعُ الْمُلْكَ مِمَّنْ تَشَاءُ وَتُعِزُّ مَنْ تَشَاءُ وَتُذِلُّ مَنْ تَشَاءُ ۖ بِيَدِكَ الْخَيْرُ ۖ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
Say, “O Allah, Owner of All Kingship, You give authority to whom You will, and you take it away from whom You will. You honour whom you will and you debase whom You will. In your Hand is all good. Indeed You are All Powerful over everything.”
So they do not compare to the dominion of Allaah the Perfect and Most High. However in the next life then Allaah the Mighty and Majestic says:
يَوْمَ هُمْ بَارِزُونَ ۖ لَا يَخْفَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْهُمْ شَيْءٌ ۚ لِمَنِ الْمُلْكُ الْيَوْمَ ۖ لِلَّهِ الْوَاحِدِ الْقَهَّارِ
The Day when they will come forth, nothing from them will be hidden from Allaah at all. To whom belongs all kingship on that Day? To Allaah, the One, the Overwhelming Subduer.
This is the third Attribute. al-Ilaah means something which is worshipped, and it is of two categories:
- Something which is worshipped in truth, and that is Allaah the Perfect and Most High.
- That which is worshipped falsely, i.e.: anything besides Allaah the Perfect and Most High, such as the false gods of the mushrikoon (polytheists).
So we find the three categories of tawheed being mentioned in this soorah:
- Tawheed-ur-Ruboobiyyah: as exemplified by His the Mighty and Majestic’s statement (بِرَبِّ النَّاس) “The Lord of mankind.”
- Tawheed-ul-Uloohiyyah: as in His the Mighty and Majestic’s statement (إِلَٰهِ النَّاسِ) “The (only true) God of mankind.”
- Tawheed-ul-Asmaa was–Sifaat (of Allaah’s Names and Attributes): in His the Mighty and Majestic’s statement (مَلِكِ النَّاسِ) “The King of mankind.”
And all of these instances of seeking refuge are a protection from the evil of shaytaan, may Allaah curse him.
Allaah the Mighty and Majestic said:
مِنْ شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاس
al-Waswaas, with a fat-hah on the waw is shaytaan. As for al-Wiswaas then this is the verbal noun derived from ‘to whisper’.
He is the one who withdraws and pulls back, and that is because shaytaan withdraws and pulls back when Allaah is remembered. And when Allaah is not remembered, then he whispers and draws close. So he whispers to one who is heedless and he withdraws from one who remembers Allaah the Perfect and Most High.
From Anas radiyAllaahu’anhu from the Prophet (ﷺ) who said:
“Indeed shaytaan places his snout upon the heart of the son of Aadam, so if he remembers Allaah then he withdraws, and if he forgets, then he swallows it up. So that is the whisperer who withdraws.”
[Da’eef, Silsilat-ul-ahadeeth ad-Da’eefah 1367]
And from Ibn Abbaas radiyAllaahu’anhu regarding His statement (الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ) he said:
“When someone is born then shaytaan perches upon his heart. So when he reaches the age of understanding and remembers Allaah, then he withdraws, and if he is heedless then he whispers”
[Saheeh according to Sh al-Albaanee, al-Mishkaat 2221]
And from Abu Hurairah radiyAllaahu’anhu: the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) said:
“Shaytaan comes to one of you and says ‘Who created this? Who created that?’ up until he says ‘Who created your Lord?’ So if this happens then he should seek refuge with Allaah and stop (thinking such thoughts).”
Then Allaah the Perfect and Most High explains (the above) with His the Mighty and Majestic’s statement:
الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ
That he whispers into their hearts, so whoever is afflicted with whispering then he should hasten to seek refuge with Allaah the Perfect and Most High from shaytaan, for he will then leave him alone – with the permission of Allaah.
And he should not pay attention to such whispering and not be affected by it, because any whispering which occurs to him, can occur to anyone, and it even happened to the Companions radiyAllaahu’anhum and they disliked it.
So if someone dislikes being whispered to in this manner, and he dislikes bad thoughts in relation to Allaah the Perfect and Most High or in relation to His Messenger (ﷺ) or in relation to the Religion, then he should not verbalize (these bad thoughts), for this is a sign of his faith. As for if he were to verbalize such thoughts, then this is what would cause him harm.
And may Allaah extol and send perfect peace and security upon our Messenger Muhammad and his family and his Companions.
[From maa tayassara wa tahassala min duroos il Qur’aan Vol 2 p541. Translated by Adnaan ibn Salman]