بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ * الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ * الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ * مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ * إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ * اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ * صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ
(قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ * مَلِكِ النَّاسِ * إِلَٰهِ النَّاسِ * مِنْ شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ * الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ * مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ)
Say, “I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind
The King of mankind
The God of mankind
From the evil of the whisperer who withdraws and pulls back –
Who whispers into the hearts of men –
From among the jinn and mankind.”
Meaning: Say O Muhammad
Meaning: I seek shelter with, I resort to and I take refuge in…
ar-Rabb: He is the one who takes care of his slaves through his blessings and who nurtures them. And He also takes care of them through sending revelation and beneficial knowledge. So He is their Lord in the sense that He is their King, Lord and the One who controls their affairs.
All of Mankind, from the Children of Aadam.
He the Mighty and Majestic said:
This is one of Allaah the Perfect and Most High’s Attributes. So ar-Rabb and al-Malik are from Allaah the Most Glorious’ Names. So they have no true King except Him, the Perfect and Most High and no-one shares in His kingship over all mankind. So they all belong to Him and are His slaves and under His control and authority. Some of them are people who are evil, so one should seek refuge with Allaah the Perfect and Most High that He protects from these evil people, because He is their Lord and He has power over them.
So He is the King, the Perfect and Most High, without any partner, and He has absolute dominion on the Day of Judgement.
As for in this world then there are kings, but their kingship is limited not absolute, and it is weak when compared to the dominion of Allaah the Perfect and Most High. Also their kingship is a privilege from Allaah the Perfect and Most High. He the Mighty and Majestic said:
قُلِ اللَّهُمَّ مَالِكَ الْمُلْكِ تُؤْتِي الْمُلْكَ مَنْ تَشَاءُ وَتَنْزِعُ الْمُلْكَ مِمَّنْ تَشَاءُ وَتُعِزُّ مَنْ تَشَاءُ وَتُذِلُّ مَنْ تَشَاءُ ۖ بِيَدِكَ الْخَيْرُ ۖ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
Say, “O Allah, Owner of All Kingship, You give authority to whom You will, and you take it away from whom You will. You honour whom you will and you debase whom You will. In your Hand is all good. Indeed You are All Powerful over everything.”
So they do not compare to the dominion of Allaah the Perfect and Most High. However in the next life then Allaah the Mighty and Majestic says:
يَوْمَ هُمْ بَارِزُونَ ۖ لَا يَخْفَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْهُمْ شَيْءٌ ۚ لِمَنِ الْمُلْكُ الْيَوْمَ ۖ لِلَّهِ الْوَاحِدِ الْقَهَّارِ
The Day when they will come forth, nothing from them will be hidden from Allaah at all. To whom belongs all kingship on that Day? To Allaah, the One, the Overwhelming Subduer.
This is the third Attribute. al-Ilaah means something which is worshipped, and it is of two categories:
- Something which is worshipped in truth, and that is Allaah the Perfect and Most High.
- That which is worshipped falsely, i.e.: anything besides Allaah the Perfect and Most High, such as the false gods of the mushrikoon (polytheists).
So we find the three categories of tawheed being mentioned in this soorah:
- Tawheed-ur-Ruboobiyyah: as exemplified by His the Mighty and Majestic’s statement (بِرَبِّ النَّاس) “The Lord of mankind.”
- Tawheed-ul-Uloohiyyah: as in His the Mighty and Majestic’s statement (إِلَٰهِ النَّاسِ) “The (only true) God of mankind.”
- Tawheed-ul-Asmaa was–Sifaat (of Allaah’s Names and Attributes): in His the Mighty and Majestic’s statement (مَلِكِ النَّاسِ) “The King of mankind.”
And all of these instances of seeking refuge are a protection from the evil of shaytaan, may Allaah curse him.
Allaah the Mighty and Majestic said:
مِنْ شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاس
al-Waswaas, with a fat-hah on the waw is shaytaan. As for al-Wiswaas then this is the verbal noun derived from ‘to whisper’.
He is the one who withdraws and pulls back, and that is because shaytaan withdraws and pulls back when Allaah is remembered. And when Allaah is not remembered, then he whispers and draws close. So he whispers to one who is heedless and he withdraws from one who remembers Allaah the Perfect and Most High.
From Anas radiyAllaahu’anhu from the Prophet (ﷺ) who said:
“Indeed shaytaan places his snout upon the heart of the son of Aadam, so if he remembers Allaah then he withdraws, and if he forgets, then he swallows it up. So that is the whisperer who withdraws.”
[Da’eef, Silsilat-ul-ahadeeth ad-Da’eefah 1367]
And from Ibn Abbaas radiyAllaahu’anhu regarding His statement (الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ) he said:
“When someone is born then shaytaan perches upon his heart. So when he reaches the age of understanding and remembers Allaah, then he withdraws, and if he is heedless then he whispers”
[Saheeh according to Sh al-Albaanee, al-Mishkaat 2221]
And from Abu Hurairah radiyAllaahu’anhu: the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) said:
“Shaytaan comes to one of you and says ‘Who created this? Who created that?’ up until he says ‘Who created your Lord?’ So if this happens then he should seek refuge with Allaah and stop (thinking such thoughts).”
Then Allaah the Perfect and Most High explains (the above) with His the Mighty and Majestic’s statement:
الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ
That he whispers into their hearts, so whoever is afflicted with whispering then he should hasten to seek refuge with Allaah the Perfect and Most High from shaytaan, for he will then leave him alone – with the permission of Allaah.
And he should not pay attention to such whispering and not be affected by it, because any whispering which occurs to him, can occur to anyone, and it even happened to the Companions radiyAllaahu’anhum and they disliked it.
So if someone dislikes being whispered to in this manner, and he dislikes bad thoughts in relation to Allaah the Perfect and Most High or in relation to His Messenger (ﷺ) or in relation to the Religion, then he should not verbalize (these bad thoughts), for this is a sign of his faith. As for if he were to verbalize such thoughts, then this is what would cause him harm.
And may Allaah extol and send perfect peace and security upon our Messenger Muhammad and his family and his Companions.
[From maa tayassara wa tahassala min duroos il Qur’aan Vol 2 p541. Translated by Adnaan ibn Salman]
The scholar Abdur Rahmaan ibn Nasir as Sa’dee rahimahullaah said about the statement of Allaah, the Most High:
<<And when some harm touches man, he calls upon his Lord repentantly.
Then when He bestows a blessing upon him from Himself, he forgets that which he was supplicating about beforehand and he sets up rivals along with Allaah.>>
(Soorah az Zumar (39) aayah 8)
He, the Most High, informs (us) of His generosity to His servant, and His fine treatment and goodness to him – and how little is the gratitude of His servant.
And that when harm touches him, by way of illness or poverty or falling into difficulty at sea or other than that (and) that he knows that none can save him in this situation except Allaah, then he calls upon Him beseeching (Him) and turning in repentance; and he seeks rescue from Him for the removal of that which has befallen him and he implores (Him) in that.
Then when He bestows a blessing – (meaning) Allaah
a blessing upon him from Himself – in that He takes away the harm and distress that he had
he forgets that which he was supplicating about beforehand – meaning: he forgets that harm about which he had called upon Allaah; and he continues as if no harm had afflicted him and he persists upon his shirk.
(Tayseer ul Kareem ir Rahmaan of as Sa’dee rahimahullaah, translated by Nasser ibn Najam)
The scholar Abdur Rahmaan ibn Nasir as Sa’dee rahimahullaah said about the statement of Allaah, the Most High:
<<No fruit emerges from its covering nor does any female become pregnant nor give birth to offspring except by His knowledge.
And on the Day when He will call them, “Where are My partners?” they will say, “We inform you that none of us bears witness.”>>
(Soorah al Fussilat (41) aayah 47
So no fruit emerges from any tree except that He is has detailed knowledge of it.
…nor does any female become pregnant – from the children of Adam, or other than them from the different types of animals, except with His knowledge.
nor give birth to offspring except by His knowledge – so how can the people of shirk equate with Him, He the Most High, that which has no knowledge nor hearing nor seeing?
And on the Day when He will call them – meaning those people who make shirk with Him, on the Day of Resurrection, rebuking (them) and making manifest their lie. So He will say to them:
Where are My Partners? – those whom you claimed were My partners, such that you worshipped them, and argued over that, and showed enmity to the Messengers on account of them?
they will say – affirming the falsity of taking them (the false deities) as objects of worship and partners along with Allaah
We inform you that none of us bears witness – meaning we inform you, O our Lord, and bear witness upon us, that not one of us testifies that taking them as objects of worship and partners was something correct. So now all of us go back to (believing in the) falsity of worshipping them, and we declare ourselves free of them.
(Tafseer ul Kareem ir Rahmaan of as Sa’dee rahimahullaah, translated by Nasser ibn Najam)
Explanation of Ayah 175-176 from Surat-ul-A’raaf
By Shaikh Abdur Rahman Ibn Nasir as Sa’di
Allaah said to His prophet (Peace be upon him),
< و اتل عليهم نبأ الذي آتيناهم آياتنا >
And inform them about the one who we gave our signs to.
i.e. we taught him the book of Allaah (Quraan), and so became learned.
< فانسلخ منها، فأتبعه الشيطان >
But he turned away from them and Satan followed him.
i.e. he physically turned away with knowledge of the book of Allaah. One who has knowledge of this (quraan) makes the person from the best and noblest manners and purist of actions which take the person to the highest of stations, yet he abandons this and puts the book of Allaah behind him, renounces the manners which the Quraan orders and strips himself of it just as he removes his clothes.
So when he turns away from this Satan follows him, meaning, Satan overcomes him as he has now left the best of fortified fortresses and has now become from the lowest of the lowest and in turn he is led to sins,
< فكان من الغاوين >
and so became from those astray.
After he was once from those who were rightly guided and guided others. Because Allaah lowered him and left him to his own devices. Allaah says in this regard,
< و لو شئنا لرفعناه بها >
and had We willed we could have raised him because of it.
i.e. We could guide him to act upon it ( his knowledge ), and so would be elevated in this life and the next and be protected from his enemies.
< و لكنه >
But rather he…
did that which caused his misguidance when he..
< أخلد إلى الارض >
Clung to the earth…
i.e he clung to lowly desires and worldly possessions.
< و اتبع هواه >
And followed his desires…
i.e he stopped obeying his Lord.
< فمثله >
So his example…
i.e in regards to the extreme importance he places to this life and the attachment of his heart to it.
< كمثل الكلب إن تحمل عليه يلهث أو تتركه يلهث >
Is like that of a dog. If you chase him away he pants or if you leave him be he still pants.
i.e. He will not stop panting in every situation. Just like this one who is constantly seeking this worldly life with all his heart that he may lose something from the worldly possessions.
< ذلك مثل القوم الذين كذبوا بآياتنا >
That is the example of those who disregard our signs…
i.e. After Allaah had guided them but they never followed them, rather they disbelieved and rejected them due to Allaah disgracing them, following their desires and without guidance from Allaah.
< فاقصص القصص لعلهم يتفكرون >
So narrate the stories, perhaps they may reflect.
i.e. In putting forth for the people examples, lessons and signs. So if they reflect, they will know, and when they know they will act.
Translated by Abu Salmaan Talha ibn William
from the works of numerous mufassireen. Compiled and translated by Abu Talhah rahimahullaah:
taken from Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’ – compiled and translated by Abu Talhah rahimahullaah: