From the Treasures of the Qur’an: 001 al-Fatihah

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ * الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ * الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ * مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ * إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ * اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ * صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

In the Name of Allaah, the Extremely Merciful, the Especially Merciful
All praise is due to Allaah Lord of all creation.
The Extremely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.
Master of the Day of Recompense.
You alone do we worship, and You alone do we ask for help.
Guide us upon the straight path.
The path of those whom you have favoured, not those who have earned your anger nor those who have gone astray.
[Surah al-Fatihah 1-7]
Surah Al-Fatihah is the greatest Surah in the Quran, as indicated by the hadith of Abu Saeed ibn Mu’allaa, reported by Al-Bukhari (4474). It includes the three types of tawhid: Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah, Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah, and Tawhid al-Asmaa was-Sifaat.
Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah refers to the uniqueness of Allah the Most High in terms of His actions, such as creating, providing, giving life and death and other actions. The overall meaning is that Allaah is alone in His actions, he has no partner in creating the creation or in giving them life and death.
Tawhid al Uluhiyyah is that people single out Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, with their acts of worship; such as supplication, fear, hope, trust, seeking help, seeking deliverance, sacrifice and so on. Indeed, it is a must that they make these purely for Allah, not ascribing any partner with Him in their worship. So therefore, as there is no Creator except for Allah, and no-one who gives life and death except Allaah, then it  is only fitting that Allaah alone is the One who deserves all worship.
Tawhid al-Asmaa was-Sifat is affirmation of the Names and Qualities which Allah affirmed for Himself or which His messenger affirmed for Him, while avoiding any distortion, misinterpretation, or negation of their meanings. One also must avoid trying to enquire about their precise nature and comparing them to the creation, as Allah said:
 لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ ۖ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ
There is nothing like Him, and He is the Hearer, the Seer
[Surah ash-Shura 11]
This noble verse provides a clear basis for the approach of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah (the unified followers of the Prophetic Sunnah) regarding Allaah’s Qualities – which is to affirm them while negating any deficiency. So Allaah’s statement:
وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ
and He is the Hearer, the Seer
is affirmation of the names “The Hearer” (as-Sami’) and “The Seer” (al-Basir), indicating Allah has the qualities of hearing and seeing. In His statement:
لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ
There is nothing like Him
is an indication of the absence of resemblance between His characteristics and the characteristics of His creation. He, the Perfect and Most High has hearing unlike the hearing of the creation, and sight unlike their sight.
In fact the first verse of this great Surah includes all three types of Tawhid. As for Tawhid Al Uluhiyyah, then the verse:
الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ
All praise is due to Allah
indicates this because the slaves praising their Lord is their worship Him and praising Him, and this is  from their actions.
As for Tawhid Ar-Rububiyyah then it is in His Most High’s words:
رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
Lord of all creation
so he, the Perfect and Most High, is the Rabb (Lord) of everything, its Creator and Owner, as Allah, the Mighty and Majestic said:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ * الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَنْدَادًا وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
O mankind, worship your Lord, Who created you and those before you in order that you may fear (Him and worship Him alone). Who has appointed the earth as a resting-place for you, and the sky a canopy; and brought, from the sky, water and brought forth thereby fruits as a provision for you. And do not set up rivals to Allah while you know (better).
[Surah al-Baqarah 21-22].
And as for Tawhid Al-Asmaa wa As-Sifat then this verse contains two of Allaah’s Names and they are His majestic (main) name in His statement:
لِلَّهِ
for Allah
and ar-Rabb in His statement:
رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
Lord of the worlds
In this verse ar-Rabb is mentioned linked to something (i.e. that Allaah is the Lord of the worlds), whereas in Surah YaSin it is mentioned without being linked to something, in His statement
سَلَامٌ قَوْلًا مِّن رَّبٍّ رَّحِيمٍ
‘Peace’, a word from the Lord, Most Merciful 
[Surah YaSin 58]
And al-‘Alamun is everyone besides Allah. Allah the Perfect and Most High in Himself and His Names and his Qualities: He is the Creator and all everything besides him is the creation. Allah said regarding Musa (Moses) and Firaun (Pharaoh):
قَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ وَمَا رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ * قَالَ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا ۖ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُوقِنِينَ
Firaun (Pharaoh) said: And what is the Lord of the worlds? 
Musa (Moses) said: Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, if only you had faith!
[Surah ash-Shu’araa 23-24]
And ar-Rahmaan and ar-Raheem are …
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114 – Soorat-un-Naas (Tafseer Sh Fawzaan) 

(قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ * مَلِكِ النَّاسِ * إِلَٰهِ النَّاسِ * مِنْ شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ * الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ * مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ)

Say, “I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind

The King of mankind

The God of mankind

From the evil of the whisperer who withdraws and pulls back –

Who whispers into the hearts of men –

From among the jinn and mankind.”

 

__________

قُلْ

Meaning: Say O Muhammad

أَعُوذُ

Meaning: I seek shelter with,  I resort to and I take refuge in…

بِرَبِّ النَّاس

ar-Rabb: He is the one who takes care of his slaves through his blessings and who nurtures them.  And He also takes care of them through sending revelation and beneficial knowledge.  So He is their Lord in the sense that He is their King, Lord and the One who controls their affairs.

بِرَبِّ النَّاس

All of Mankind, from the Children of Aadam.

He the Mighty and Majestic said:

مَلِكِ النَّاسِ

This is one of Allaah the Perfect and Most High’s Attributes.  So ar-Rabb and al-Malik are from Allaah the Most Glorious’ Names. So they have no true King except Him, the Perfect and Most High and no-one shares in His kingship over all mankind. So they all belong to Him and are His slaves and under His control and authority. Some of them are people who are evil, so one should seek refuge with Allaah the Perfect and Most High that He protects from these evil people, because He is their Lord and He has power over them.

مَلِكِ النَّاسِ

So He is the King, the Perfect and Most High, without any partner, and He has absolute dominion on the Day of Judgement.

As for in this world then there are kings, but their kingship is limited not absolute, and it is weak when compared to the dominion of Allaah the Perfect and Most High. Also their kingship is a privilege from Allaah the Perfect and Most High. He the Mighty and Majestic said:

قُلِ اللَّهُمَّ مَالِكَ الْمُلْكِ تُؤْتِي الْمُلْكَ مَنْ تَشَاءُ وَتَنْزِعُ الْمُلْكَ مِمَّنْ تَشَاءُ وَتُعِزُّ مَنْ تَشَاءُ وَتُذِلُّ مَنْ تَشَاءُ ۖ بِيَدِكَ الْخَيْرُ ۖ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Say, “O Allah, Owner of All Kingship, You give authority to whom You will, and you take it away from whom You will. You honour whom you will and you debase whom You will. In your Hand is all good. Indeed You are All Powerful over everything.”

[3:26]

So they do not compare to the dominion of Allaah the Perfect and Most High. However in the next life then Allaah the Mighty and Majestic says:

يَوْمَ هُمْ بَارِزُونَ ۖ لَا يَخْفَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْهُمْ شَيْءٌ ۚ لِمَنِ الْمُلْكُ الْيَوْمَ ۖ لِلَّهِ الْوَاحِدِ الْقَهَّارِ

The Day when they will come forth, nothing from them will be hidden from Allaah at all. To whom belongs all kingship on that Day? To Allaah, the One, the Overwhelming Subduer.

[40:16]

إِلَٰهِ النَّاسِ

This is the third Attribute. al-Ilaah means something which is worshipped, and it is of two categories:

  1. Something which is worshipped in truth, and that is Allaah the Perfect and Most High.
  2. That which is worshipped falsely, i.e.: anything besides Allaah the Perfect and Most High, such as the false gods of the mushrikoon (polytheists).

So we find the three categories of tawheed being mentioned in this soorah:

  1. Tawheed-ur-Ruboobiyyah: as exemplified by His the Mighty and Majestic’s statement (بِرَبِّ النَّاس) “The Lord of mankind.”
  2. Tawheed-ul-Uloohiyyah: as in His the Mighty and Majestic’s statement (إِلَٰهِ النَّاسِ) “The (only true) God of mankind.”
  3. Tawheed-ul-Asmaa wasSifaat (of Allaah’s Names and Attributes): in His the Mighty and Majestic’s statement (مَلِكِ النَّاسِ) “The King of mankind.”

And all of these instances of seeking refuge are a protection from the evil of shaytaan, may Allaah curse him.

Allaah the Mighty and Majestic said:

مِنْ شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاس

al-Waswaas, with a fat-hah on the waw is shaytaan. As for al-Wiswaas then this is the verbal noun derived from ‘to whisper’.

الْخَنَّاسِ

He is the one who withdraws and pulls back, and that is because shaytaan withdraws and pulls back when Allaah is remembered. And when Allaah is not remembered, then he whispers and draws close. So he whispers to one who is heedless and he withdraws from one who remembers Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

From Anas radiyAllaahu’anhu from the Prophet (ﷺ) who said:

“Indeed shaytaan places his snout upon the heart of the son of Aadam, so if he remembers Allaah then he withdraws, and if he forgets, then he swallows it up. So that is the whisperer who withdraws.”

[Da’eef, Silsilat-ul-ahadeeth ad-Da’eefah 1367]

And from Ibn Abbaas radiyAllaahu’anhu regarding His statement (الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ) he said:

“When someone is born then shaytaan perches upon his heart. So when he reaches the age of understanding and remembers Allaah, then he withdraws, and if he is heedless then he whispers”

[Saheeh according to Sh al-Albaanee, al-Mishkaat 2221]

And from Abu Hurairah radiyAllaahu’anhu: the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) said:

“Shaytaan comes to one of you and says ‘Who created this? Who created that?’ up until he says ‘Who created your Lord?’ So if this happens then he should seek refuge with Allaah and stop (thinking such thoughts).”

[Saheeh-ul-Bukhaaree 3276]

Then Allaah the Perfect and Most High explains (the above) with His the Mighty and Majestic’s statement:

الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ

That he whispers into their hearts, so whoever is afflicted with whispering then he should hasten to seek refuge with Allaah the Perfect and Most High from shaytaan, for he will then leave him alone – with the permission of Allaah.

And he should not pay attention to such whispering and not be affected by it, because any whispering which occurs to him, can occur to anyone, and it even happened to the Companions radiyAllaahu’anhum and they disliked it.

So if someone dislikes being whispered to in this manner, and he dislikes bad thoughts in relation to Allaah the Perfect and Most High or in relation to His Messenger (ﷺ) or in relation to the Religion, then he should not verbalize (these bad thoughts), for this is a sign of his faith. As for if he were to verbalize such thoughts, then this is what would cause him harm.

And may Allaah extol and send perfect peace and security upon our Messenger Muhammad and his family and his Companions.

 

[From maa tayassara wa tahassala min duroos il Qur’aan Vol 2 p541. Translated by Adnaan ibn Salman]

How quickly man forgets Allaah’s blessings upon him

The scholar  Abdur Rahmaan ibn Nasir as Sa’dee rahimahullaah said about the statement of Allaah, the Most High:

<<And when some harm touches man, he calls upon his Lord repentantly.
Then when He bestows a blessing upon him from Himself, he forgets that which he was supplicating about beforehand and he sets up rivals along with Allaah.>>
(Soorah az Zumar (39) aayah 8)

He, the Most High, informs (us) of His generosity to His servant, and His fine treatment and goodness to him – and how little is the gratitude of His servant.

And that when harm touches him, by way of illness or poverty or falling into difficulty at sea or other than that (and) that he knows that none can save him in this situation except Allaah, then he calls upon Him beseeching (Him) and turning in repentance; and he seeks rescue from Him for the removal of that which has befallen him and he implores (Him) in that.

Then when He bestows a blessing – (meaning) Allaah

a blessing upon him from Himself – in that He takes away the harm and distress that he had

he forgets that which he was supplicating about beforehand –  meaning: he forgets that harm about which he had called upon Allaah; and he continues as if no harm had afflicted him and he persists upon his shirk.

(Tayseer ul Kareem ir Rahmaan of as Sa’dee rahimahullaah, translated by Nasser ibn Najam)

The mushriks’ rejection of their shirk

The scholar  Abdur Rahmaan ibn Nasir as Sa’dee rahimahullaah said about the statement of Allaah, the Most High:

<<No fruit emerges from its covering nor does any female become pregnant nor give birth to offspring except by His knowledge.
And on the Day when He will call them, “Where are My partners?” they will say, “We inform you that none of us bears witness.”>>

(Soorah al Fussilat (41) aayah 47

So no fruit emerges from any tree except that He is has detailed knowledge of it.

…nor does any female become pregnant – from the children of Adam, or other than them from the different types of animals, except with His knowledge.

nor give birth to offspring except by His knowledge – so how can the people of shirk equate with Him, He the Most High,  that which has no knowledge nor hearing nor seeing?

And on the Day when He will call them – meaning those people who make shirk with Him, on the Day of Resurrection, rebuking (them) and making manifest their lie. So He will say to them:

Where are My Partners? – those whom you claimed were My partners, such that you worshipped them, and argued over that, and showed enmity to the Messengers on account of them?

they will say – affirming the falsity of taking them (the false deities) as objects of worship and partners along with Allaah

We inform you that none of us bears witness – meaning we inform you, O our Lord, and bear witness upon us, that not one of us testifies that taking them as objects of worship and partners was something correct. So now all of us go back to (believing in the) falsity of worshipping them, and we declare ourselves free of them.

(Tafseer ul Kareem ir Rahmaan  of as Sa’dee rahimahullaah, translated by Nasser ibn Najam)

One who turns away, upon knowledge

Explanation of Ayah 175-176 from Surat-ul-A’raaf

By Shaikh Abdur Rahman Ibn Nasir as Sa’di

Allaah said to His prophet (Peace be upon him),

< و اتل عليهم نبأ الذي آتيناهم آياتنا >

And inform them about the one who we gave our signs to.

i.e. we taught him the book of Allaah (Quraan), and so became learned.

< فانسلخ منها، فأتبعه الشيطان >

But he turned away from them and Satan followed him.

i.e. he physically turned away with knowledge of the book of Allaah. One who has knowledge of this (quraan) makes the person from the best and noblest  manners and purist of actions which take the person to the highest of stations, yet he abandons this and puts the book of Allaah behind him, renounces the manners which the Quraan orders and strips himself of it just as he removes his clothes.

So when he turns away from this Satan follows him, meaning, Satan overcomes him as he has now left the best of fortified fortresses and has now become from the lowest of the lowest and in turn he is led to sins,

< فكان من الغاوين >

and so became from those astray.

After he was once from those who were rightly guided and guided others. Because Allaah lowered him and left him to his own devices. Allaah says in this regard,

< و لو شئنا لرفعناه بها >

and had We willed we could have raised him because of it.

i.e. We could guide him to act upon it ( his knowledge ), and so would be elevated in this life and the next and be protected from his enemies.

< و لكنه >

But rather he…

did that which caused his misguidance when he..

< أخلد إلى الارض >

Clung to the earth…

i.e he clung to lowly desires and worldly possessions.

< و اتبع هواه >

And followed his desires…

i.e he stopped obeying his Lord.

< فمثله >

So his example…

i.e in regards to the extreme importance he places to this life and the attachment of his heart to it.

< كمثل الكلب إن تحمل عليه يلهث أو تتركه يلهث >

Is like that of a dog. If you chase him away he pants or if you leave him be he still pants.

i.e. He will not stop panting in every situation. Just like this one who is constantly seeking this worldly life with all his heart that he may lose something from the worldly possessions.

< ذلك مثل القوم الذين كذبوا بآياتنا >

That is the example of those who disregard our signs…

i.e. After Allaah had guided them but they never followed them, rather they disbelieved and rejected them due to Allaah disgracing them, following their desires and without guidance from Allaah.

< فاقصص القصص لعلهم يتفكرون >

So narrate the stories, perhaps they may reflect.

i.e. In putting forth for the people examples, lessons and signs. So if they reflect, they will know, and when they know they will act.

Translated by Abu Salmaan Talha ibn William

Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’

from the works of numerous mufassireen. Compiled and translated by Abu Talhah rahimahullaah:

tafseer_soorat-in-naba

Introduction to Tafseer – Ibn Taymiyyah

taken from Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’ – compiled and translated by Abu Talhah rahimahullaah:

Introduction – Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’