بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ * الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ * الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ * مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ * إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ * اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ * صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ
In the Name of Allaah, the Extremely Merciful, the Especially Merciful
All praise is due to Allaah Lord of all creation.
The Extremely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.
Master of the Day of Recompense.
You alone do we worship, and You alone do we ask for help.
Guide us upon the straight path.
The path of those whom you have favoured, not those who have earned your anger nor those who have gone astray.
[Surah al-Fatihah 1-7]
Surah Al-Fatihah is the greatest Surah in the Quran, as indicated by the hadith of Abu Saeed ibn Mu’allaa, reported by Al-Bukhari (4474). It includes the three types of tawhid: Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah, Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah, and Tawhid al-Asmaa was-Sifaat.
Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah refers to the uniqueness of Allah the Most High in terms of His actions, such as creating, providing, giving life and death and other actions. The overall meaning is that Allaah is alone in His actions, he has no partner in creating the creation or in giving them life and death.
Tawhid al Uluhiyyah is that people single out Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, with their acts of worship; such as supplication, fear, hope, trust, seeking help, seeking deliverance, sacrifice and so on. Indeed, it is a must that they make these purely for Allah, not ascribing any partner with Him in their worship. So therefore, as there is no Creator except for Allah, and no-one who gives life and death except Allaah, then it is only fitting that Allaah alone is the One who deserves all worship.
Tawhid al-Asmaa was-Sifat is affirmation of the Names and Qualities which Allah affirmed for Himself or which His messenger affirmed for Him, while avoiding any distortion, misinterpretation, or negation of their meanings. One also must avoid trying to enquire about their precise nature and comparing them to the creation, as Allah said:
لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ ۖ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ
There is nothing like Him, and He is the Hearer, the Seer
[Surah ash-Shura 11]
This noble verse provides a clear basis for the approach of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah (the unified followers of the Prophetic Sunnah) regarding Allaah’s Qualities – which is to affirm them while negating any deficiency. So Allaah’s statement:
وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ
and He is the Hearer, the Seer
is affirmation of the names “The Hearer” (as-Sami’) and “The Seer” (al-Basir), indicating Allah has the qualities of hearing and seeing. In His statement:
لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ
There is nothing like Him
is an indication of the absence of resemblance between His characteristics and the characteristics of His creation. He, the Perfect and Most High has hearing unlike the hearing of the creation, and sight unlike their sight.
In fact the first verse of this great Surah includes all three types of Tawhid. As for Tawhid Al Uluhiyyah, then the verse:
All praise is due to Allah
indicates this because the slaves praising their Lord is their worship Him and praising Him, and this is from their actions.
As for Tawhid Ar-Rububiyyah then it is in His Most High’s words:
Lord of all creation
so he, the Perfect and Most High, is the Rabb (Lord) of everything, its Creator and Owner, as Allah, the Mighty and Majestic said:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ * الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَنْدَادًا وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
O mankind, worship your Lord, Who created you and those before you in order that you may fear (Him and worship Him alone). Who has appointed the earth as a resting-place for you, and the sky a canopy; and brought, from the sky, water and brought forth thereby fruits as a provision for you. And do not set up rivals to Allah while you know (better).
[Surah al-Baqarah 21-22].
And as for Tawhid Al-Asmaa wa As-Sifat then this verse contains two of Allaah’s Names and they are His majestic (main) name in His statement:
and ar-Rabb in His statement:
Lord of the worlds
In this verse ar-Rabb is mentioned linked to something (i.e. that Allaah is the Lord of the worlds), whereas in Surah YaSin it is mentioned without being linked to something, in His statement
سَلَامٌ قَوْلًا مِّن رَّبٍّ رَّحِيمٍ
‘Peace’, a word from the Lord, Most Merciful
[Surah YaSin 58]
And al-‘Alamun is everyone besides Allah. Allah the Perfect and Most High in Himself and His Names and his Qualities: He is the Creator and all everything besides him is the creation. Allah said regarding Musa (Moses) and Firaun (Pharaoh):
قَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ وَمَا رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ * قَالَ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا ۖ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُوقِنِينَ
Firaun (Pharaoh) said: And what is the Lord of the worlds?
Musa (Moses) said: Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, if only you had faith!
[Surah ash-Shu’araa 23-24]
And ar-Rahmaan and ar-Raheem are …
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