From the Treasures of the Qur’an: 001 al-Fatihah

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ * الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ * الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ * مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ * إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ * اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ * صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

In the Name of Allaah, the Extremely Merciful, the Especially Merciful
All praise is due to Allaah Lord of all creation.
The Extremely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.
Master of the Day of Recompense.
You alone do we worship, and You alone do we ask for help.
Guide us upon the straight path.
The path of those whom you have favoured, not those who have earned your anger nor those who have gone astray.
[Surah al-Fatihah 1-7]
Surah Al-Fatihah is the greatest Surah in the Quran, as indicated by the hadith of Abu Saeed ibn Mu’allaa, reported by Al-Bukhari (4474). It includes the three types of tawhid: Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah, Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah, and Tawhid al-Asmaa was-Sifaat.
Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah refers to the uniqueness of Allah the Most High in terms of His actions, such as creating, providing, giving life and death and other actions. The overall meaning is that Allaah is alone in His actions, he has no partner in creating the creation or in giving them life and death.
Tawhid al Uluhiyyah is that people single out Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, with their acts of worship; such as supplication, fear, hope, trust, seeking help, seeking deliverance, sacrifice and so on. Indeed, it is a must that they make these purely for Allah, not ascribing any partner with Him in their worship. So therefore, as there is no Creator except for Allah, and no-one who gives life and death except Allaah, then it  is only fitting that Allaah alone is the One who deserves all worship.
Tawhid al-Asmaa was-Sifat is affirmation of the Names and Qualities which Allah affirmed for Himself or which His messenger affirmed for Him, while avoiding any distortion, misinterpretation, or negation of their meanings. One also must avoid trying to enquire about their precise nature and comparing them to the creation, as Allah said:
 لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ ۖ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ
There is nothing like Him, and He is the Hearer, the Seer
[Surah ash-Shura 11]
This noble verse provides a clear basis for the approach of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah (the unified followers of the Prophetic Sunnah) regarding Allaah’s Qualities – which is to affirm them while negating any deficiency. So Allaah’s statement:
وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ
and He is the Hearer, the Seer
is affirmation of the names “The Hearer” (as-Sami’) and “The Seer” (al-Basir), indicating Allah has the qualities of hearing and seeing. In His statement:
لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ
There is nothing like Him
is an indication of the absence of resemblance between His characteristics and the characteristics of His creation. He, the Perfect and Most High has hearing unlike the hearing of the creation, and sight unlike their sight.
In fact the first verse of this great Surah includes all three types of Tawhid. As for Tawhid Al Uluhiyyah, then the verse:
الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ
All praise is due to Allah
indicates this because the slaves praising their Lord is their worship Him and praising Him, and this is  from their actions.
As for Tawhid Ar-Rububiyyah then it is in His Most High’s words:
رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
Lord of all creation
so he, the Perfect and Most High, is the Rabb (Lord) of everything, its Creator and Owner, as Allah, the Mighty and Majestic said:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ * الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَنْدَادًا وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
O mankind, worship your Lord, Who created you and those before you in order that you may fear (Him and worship Him alone). Who has appointed the earth as a resting-place for you, and the sky a canopy; and brought, from the sky, water and brought forth thereby fruits as a provision for you. And do not set up rivals to Allah while you know (better).
[Surah al-Baqarah 21-22].
And as for Tawhid Al-Asmaa wa As-Sifat then this verse contains two of Allaah’s Names and they are His majestic (main) name in His statement:
لِلَّهِ
for Allah
and ar-Rabb in His statement:
رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
Lord of the worlds
In this verse ar-Rabb is mentioned linked to something (i.e. that Allaah is the Lord of the worlds), whereas in Surah YaSin it is mentioned without being linked to something, in His statement
سَلَامٌ قَوْلًا مِّن رَّبٍّ رَّحِيمٍ
‘Peace’, a word from the Lord, Most Merciful 
[Surah YaSin 58]
And al-‘Alamun is everyone besides Allah. Allah the Perfect and Most High in Himself and His Names and his Qualities: He is the Creator and all everything besides him is the creation. Allah said regarding Musa (Moses) and Firaun (Pharaoh):
قَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ وَمَا رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ * قَالَ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا ۖ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُوقِنِينَ
Firaun (Pharaoh) said: And what is the Lord of the worlds? 
Musa (Moses) said: Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, if only you had faith!
[Surah ash-Shu’araa 23-24]
And ar-Rahmaan and ar-Raheem are …
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Was ‘Eesaa ‘alaihissalaam Allaah’s Word?

With regards to the description of ‘Eesaa ‘alaihissalaam being described as “His Word which He conveyed to Maryam”[1]  the Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah states:

Allaah applied the (term) “Word” to him because he ‘alaihissalaam was created by means of a word. So the hadeeth is not taken upon its apparent (literal) meaning, since ‘Eesaa ‘alaihissalaam was not a word because he used to eat and drink and pass urine and open his bowels. And all the (usual) human situations would occur to him.

Allaah, the Most High, states:

Indeed the example of ‘Eesaa with Allaah is just as the example of Aadam. He (Allaah) created him from dust then He said to him, “Be!” and he was.
Soorah aale ‘Imraan (3) aayah 59

 And ‘Eesaa ‘alaihissalaam was not the Word of Allaah because the Speech of Allaah is an Attribute existing with Him and not separate and distinct from Him.

As for ‘Eesaa, then he was a being separate and distinct from Allaah subhaanahu ; he would come and go and eat food and drink.

(Al qawl ul mufeed (1/73) of Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah, translated by Nasser ibn Najam)

[1] Hadeeth reported by Al Bukhaaree (4453) and Muslim (28)

Using the name “Muhammad” when referring to Allaah’s Messenger

With regards to using the name “Muhammad” when referring to the Messenger of Allaah sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah states:

And his (ibn Mas’ood radi Allaahu ‘anhu) statement:

Whoever wishes to look at the wasiyyah (emphasised command) of Muhammad sall Allaahu ‘alaiyhi wa sallam….

 Meaning: the Messenger of Allaah Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillaah al Haashimee al Qarashee sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

And this expression from ibn Mas’ood shows the permissibility of the like of it, such as for example:
“Muhammad, the Messenger of Allaah sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said….”
and:
“The wasiyyah of Muhammad sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam….”

 And this does not contradict His statement, He the Most High:

<<Do not make the du’aa (calling) of the Messenger amongst yourselves like your calling one of another…>>
Soorah an Noor (24) aayah 63

 – because the du’aa of the Messenger here means munaadah (calling out to him). So do not say when calling out, “O Muhammad!” Rather say, “O Messenger of Allaah!”

As for informing (about something) then it is more encompassing than the issue of seeking (something from a person), so it is permissible for you to say, “I am a follower of Muhammad sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam,” or “O Allaah, send salaat upon Muhammad” or the like of that.

(Al qawl ul mufeed (1/44) of Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah, translated by Nasser ibn Najam)

Allaah’s addressing the people

With regards to the use of the singular at times and the plural at other times in Allaah’s addressing the people in the Qur-aan, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah states:

And the address in the aayah is to the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam but He said:

<<Wa qadaa rabbuka allaa ta’budoo illaa iyyaahu…>>

meaning:

<<And your (in the singular form) Lord has decreed that you (in the plural form) worship none except Him alone…>>
Soorah al Israa (17) aayah 23

And He did not say, that you (singular) worship none.

And the like of this in the Qur’aan is His statement, He the Most High:
<<O Prophet, when you (in the plural form) divorce the women…>>
Soorah at Talaaq (65) aayah 1

Therefore the first address is to the Messenger sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and the second is general (to the people).  So what is the benefit behind this changing of the manner (of addressing)?

1) To draw attention, because getting the attention of the person being addressed is something desired by the one speaking. And this occurs here by changing the manner (of addressing).

2) That the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam was the leader of his nation. And the address directed to him was directed to all of his nation.

3) An indication that whatever the Messenger sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam is addressed with, then it is for him and for his nation – except for something where there is a proof that it is specifically for him.

4) And in this aayah in particular, there is an sign that the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam was one who was under the control of the Lord, and not (himself) a Lord and Nurturer – a servant, and not one who is to be worshipped.  So he comes under His statement:

<<…that you (in the plural form) worship..>>

And sufficient for him in nobility is that he be a servant of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

(Al qawl ul mufeed (1/32 to 33) of Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah. Translated by Nasser ibn Najam)

“Ask the doctors…” (Sh Fawzaan)

السؤال : ماسبب كثرة الأمراض النفسية والإكتئاب في وقتنا الحاضر ؟

الجواب : سببها والله أعلم العقوبات بسبب الذنوب والمعاصي ، ولها أسبابٌ يعرفها الأطباء ، اسأل الأطباء (الأطباء النفسانيين) عن أسباب هذه الأمراض .

Q:

What is the reason for the frequency of psychiatric disorders and depression these days?

A:

Their cause, and Allaah knows best, is as a punishment for sinfulness and disobedience. And they have causes which doctors know about. Ask the doctors (psychiatrists) about the causes of these conditions.

[http://www.alfawzan.af.org.sa/node/13735]

 

Translated by Adnaan ibn Salman

Sh Uthaymeen on Aashooraa

And from those days on which it is legislated in the Sunnah to fast is the day of ‘Arafah and the tenth day of the month of Muharram – as per the hadeeth of Aboo Qataadah radi Allaahu ‘anhu that the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam was asked about fasting the Day of ‘Arafah. He said:

It expiates for the past year and the coming one.

The past one – meaning that which has finished, because the Day of ‘Arafah is in the last month of the year. And (it expiates for) the coming one. So it expiates for two years.

And he was asked about fasting on the Day of ‘Aashooraa (the tenth of Muharram) – he said:

It expiates for the past year.

So it is lesser in reward than fasting the Day of ‘Arafah. And along with that it is befitting that (the person) fast the ninth along with the tenth because the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

If I were to remain (alive) until the coming year, I would certainly fast the ninth. [1]

Meaning – along with the tenth.

And because he commanded that a day before it or a day after it be fasted, to be different to the Jews – because the Day of ‘Aashooraa- – the tenth of Muharram – is the day on which Allaah saved Moosaa and his people. And He drowned Fir’awn and his people. So the Jews used to fast it, out of gratitude to Allaah for this tremendous blessing , that Allaah saved His army and vanquished the army of Shaytaan. He saved Moosaa and his people and destroyed Fir’awn and his people. So it was a tremendous blessing.

And therefore when the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam arrived in al Madeenah, he found the Jews fasting the Day of ‘Aashooraa-, so he asked them about that. They said, “This is the day Allaah saved Moosaa and his people, and Fir’awn and his people were destroyed. So we fast it, out of gratitude to Allaah.”

So he said:

We have more right to Moosaa than you do. [2]

Why was this? Because the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and those with him had the best claim out of the people to the previous prophets.

Indeed those from the people who have the best claim to Ibraaheem are those who followed him, and this Prophet and those who believed. And Allaah is the Protector and Helper of the Believers.
[Soorah aale ‘Imraan (3) aayah 68]

So Allaah Messenger sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam had more right to Moosaa than the Jews did because the Jews disbelieved in him and disbelieved in ‘Eesaa and disbelieved in Muhammad.

So he fasted it and commanded the people to fast it, except that he commanded that they differ from the Jews – those who only fasted the tenth day – such that we fast the ninth, or the eleventh, along with the tenth – or (all) three.

Therefore some of the people of knowledge, such as ibn ul Qayyim and other than him,
mentioned that the fasting of ‘Aashooraa is of three categories:

1) that (the person) fast ‘Aashooraa and the ninth – and this is the best of the types

2) that he fast ‘Aashooraa and the eleventh – and this is less (virtuous) than the first

3) that he fast ‘Aashooraa alone. And some of the scholars disliked this because the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam commanded being different from the Jews. And some of the scholars allowed this as a concession.

References:

[1] Reported by Muslim (1134) and ibn Maajah and Ahmad in his Musnad.
[2] Reported by al Bukhaaree (3943) and Muslim and Aboo Daawud.

(Sharh Riyaad us Saaliheen (3/464) (Dar ul Kutub il ‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut) of Shaykh al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah; translated by Nasser ibn Najam)

Should modern medical treatment be avoided in favour of the Prophetic Medicine? (Sh Fawzaan)

 

Q:

There are some people who advise with using the Prophetic Medicine and they warn against some modern day medical treatments, and we have seen that some patients have come to harm as a result of this warning, so what would you advise concerning this?

A:

The Prophetic Medicine which is authentically established is true and it is beneficial, and it should not stop you from using permissible medical drugs. It does not stop you from this. You can take both. They are all from that which Allaah has made to be a healing, as he sallAllaahu’alaihiwasallam said:

“Allaah did not send down a disease except that he sent down a cure for it – whether you are aware of it or not.”[1]

And he sallAllaahu’alaihiwasallam said:

“Take medical treatments and do not seek treatment in that which is haraam (impermissible).”[2]

So that medical treatment which is established and beneficial, then there is no problem in using it, along with using the Prophetic Medicine. They are both beneficial.

 


[1] Saheeh – see asSaheehah no.s 451 & 1650

[2] Saheeh-ul-Jaami’ 1762

 

 

(Translated by Adnaan ibn Salman).