Buloogh-ul-Maraam – The Book of Purification (Uthaymeen)

Summarized noted from the explanation of Sh Uthaymeen. Hadeeth checkings by Sh al-Albaanee. (Translated by Adnaan ibn Salmaan).

Chapter 1: Types of Water

باب المياه

 عن أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-فِي اَلْبَحْرِ: { هُوَ اَلطُّهُورُ مَاؤُهُ, اَلْحِلُّ مَيْتَتُهُ } أَخْرَجَهُ اَلْأَرْبَعَةُ, وَابْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ وَاللَّفْظُ لَهُ, وَصَحَّحَهُ اِبْنُ خُزَيْمَةَ وَاَلتِّرْمِذِيُّ ورواه مالك والشافعي وأحمد

[1]:

From Abu Hurayrah radiyAllaahu’anhu who said: Allaah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said regarding the sea, “It’s water is purifying and its dead (animals) are halaal (to eat).” [Reported by al-Arba’a and Ibn Abu Shaybah (and the wording is his). Ibn Khuzaimah and Tirmidhee graded it Saheeh. [Malik, Shaafi’ee and Ahmad also reported it].

__________

Saheeh

Sh Uthaymeen:

  1. The eagerness of the Companions radiyAllaahu’anhum to acquire knowledge – and this is clear from knowing the context of the hadeeth.
  2. That sea water is purifying in all cases (except for that which excluded in the coming hadeeths – i.e.: when it is altered due to impurity).
  3. The beautiful manner in which the Messenger sallAllaahu’alaihiwasallam taught and answered questions.
  4. The permissibility of giving additional information in one’s answer when the situation dictates.
  5. That if water changes in its quality due to standing for a long period, then this is not a problem.
  6. That dead creatures on land are forbidden to eat (which can be understood from the hadeeth).
  7. That all fish and sea creatures are halaal due to the generality of his statement “its dead”.
  8. In the hadeeth there is an exclusion to His the Most High’s statement “Prohibited to you are dead creatures”.
  9. And a point of benefit from the hadeeth is that if water is altered by the presence of a fish which had died in it then it still remains purifying, because it has been altered by something pure and halaal, so it is not a problem.

[2]:

وَعَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ إِنَّ اَلْمَاءَ طَهُورٌ لَا يُنَجِّسُهُ شَيْءٌ } أَخْرَجَهُ اَلثَّلَاثَةُ وَصَحَّحَهُ أَحْمَدُ

And from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree radiyAllaahu’anhu who said:

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “Water is pure and purifying, and nothing can make it impure”. [Reported by ath-Thalaathah and declared Saheeh by Ahmad]

__________

Saheeh

Sh Uthaymeen:

  1. That water is purifying and it cleanses any type of najaasah (impurity).
  2. That the default state of water is that it is considered pure.
  3. That if water is altered by something pure it is still purifying.
  4. Water is still pure if someone immerses his hand in it after waking up from sleep, although the Prophet sallAllaahu’alihiwasallam forbade someone who woke from his sleep “from putting his hand into a container of water without having washed it three times.” [Reported by Muslim 278]
  5. The permissibility of restricting / particularising the sunnah with a consensus (i.e. there is consensus that if water’s quality is altered by impurity it too becomes impure).

[3]:

وَعَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ اَلْبَاهِلِيِّ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ إِنَّ اَلْمَاءَ لَا يُنَجِّسُهُ شَيْءٌ, إِلَّا مَا غَلَبَ عَلَى رِيحِهِ وَطَعْمِهِ, وَلَوْنِهِ } أَخْرَجَهُ اِبْنُ مَاجَهْ‏ وَضَعَّفَهُ أَبُو حَاتِمٍ

وَلِلْبَيْهَقِيِّ: { اَلْمَاءُ طَاهِرٌ إِلَّا إِنْ تَغَيَّرَ رِيحُهُ, أَوْ طَعْمُهُ, أَوْ لَوْنُهُ; بِنَجَاسَةٍ تَحْدُثُ فِيهِ }

From Abu Umaamah Al-Baahilee radiyAllaahu’anhu who said: Allaah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “Water cannot be made impure unless something alters its smell, taste or colour”. [Reported by Ibn Maajah and declared weak Abu Haatim].

And Al-Bayhaqee reported: “Water is pure unless its smell, taste or colour are changed due to some impurity falling into it.”

__________

Da’eef (i.e. the additional phrase “unless something alters its smell, taste or colour”)

Sh Uthaymeen:

  1. That the default state of water is that it is pure and that one cannot say that it is impure unless it has been altered.
  2. A restriction / particularisation of the previous hadeeth of Abu Saeed
  3. That the different proofs from the Book and Sunnah need to be understood in light of one another.
  4. That if water’s taste, colour or smell clearly alters then it goes from being pure to being impure
  5. That there are only two categories of water: pure / purifying and impure (and there is no third category of pure but not purifying).

We can summarise the following principles from what has preceded:

  1. That water can be categorised into only two types (not three).
  2. That water only becomes impure if its quality changes
  3. That if one of its characterisitics – its taste, colour or smell changes due to impurity then it becomes impure.
  4. That the only way in which najaasah (impurity) is considered to change the water is if it falls directly into it. (For example if some water’s smell was altered by a dead animal nearby, then it would still be considered pure and purifying).
  5. That the default state of water is that it is pure (and one should leave off any doubt you may have if you come across some water).
  6. That if the impure substance within some water is removed by any means, or if it goes by itself, then it becomes purifying and can purify one from the state of hadath (ritual impurity) and from najaasah (impure substances).

[4]:

وَعَنْ عَبْدِ اَللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ صَلَّى عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: { إِذَا كَانَ اَلْمَاءَ قُلَّتَيْنِ لَمْ يَحْمِلْ اَلْخَبَثَ } وَفِي لَفْظٍ: { لَمْ يَنْجُسْ } أَخْرَجَهُ اَلْأَرْبَعَةُ, وَصَحَّحَهُ اِبْنُ خُزَيْمَةَ, وَابْنُ حِبَّانَ.‏

And from Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar radiyAllaahu’anhumaa who said: Allaah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “If the water amounts to two large pots (qullatain), then it does not carry impurity.” And in another wording: “It does not become impure”. [Reported by al-Arba’ah and declared authentic by Ibn Khuzaymah, Ibn Hibbaan and Al-Haakim].

__________

Saheeh

Sh Uthaymeen:

  1. Explanation of “qullatain” that it refers to a certain relatively large amount of water which is unlikely to be altered by impurity.
  2. The scholars have differed over the authenticity of the hadeeth. Ibn-ul-Qayyim said it was weak.
  3. The understanding of the hadeeth is not to be taken in an absolute sense – i.e. if its qualities are changed by the presence of impurity then it is still to be considered impure in accordance with the consensus mentioned earler.
  4. One might consider that if the water is less than “qullatain” then a small amount of impurity will make it all impure. However this is only implied by the hadeeth and not definite, and it goes against the previous explicit hadeeths.
  5. Safer not to act on a weak hadeeth.
  6. So if impurity falls into some water and alters it then it is impure, and if it does not alter it, it remains pure, whether the amount of water is more o less than “qullatain”.
  7. The less water you have the more likely it is to be altered by impurity and vice versa.
  8. One should be sensible and cautious. So if you think that the impurity has likely affected the water then avoid using it. And if there is no effect then go ahead and use the water whether it is large or small in amount.

[5]:

وَعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ لَا يَغْتَسِلُ أَحَدُكُمْ فِي اَلْمَاءِ اَلدَّائِمِ وَهُوَ جُنُبٌ } أَخْرَجَهُ مُسْلِمٌ.‏

From Abu Hurayrah radiyAllaahu’anhu who said: the Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) said: “None of you should bathe in standing water when he is junub (in a state of major ritual impurity)”. [Reported by Muslim]

__________

Saheeh

Sh Uthaymeen:

  1. The fact that the sharee’ah takes care of issues concerning heath.
  2. The comprehensive nature of the legislation which Muhammad sallAllaahu’alaihiwasallam came with.
  3. The forbiddance (either haraam or makrooh) of someone performing ghusl from the state of being junub in stationary water.
  4. The permissibility of peforming ghusl in non stationary water which is of two types: a) Continuously flowing water (e.g. in a river); b) Water in a storage area/container which will be replaced after a short period of time
  5. It is permissible to wash in stationary water if you are not performing ghusl for janaabah – e.g. if you are washing to cleanse yourself or for a non-obligatory ghusl.
  6. The person who is junub is someone who must perform ghusl either because of intercourse or ejaculation.
  7. Some scholars say that this hadeeth shows that if someone performs ghusl from janaabah then the remaining water is impure, and some say that it is pure in itself but not purifying. However we say that the hadeeth doesn’t provide evidence for either of these statements.

[5 cont]:

And the wording in Bukhari is: “One must not urinate in standing water that doesn’t flow, and then bathe in it”. One of the versions in Muslim has the wording: “from it (i.e. the water)”. A version in Abu Dawood has the wording: “One should not bathe in it from janaabah (the state of major ritual impurity)”.

———-

Saheeh

Sh Uthaymeen:

  1. That the legislation of Islaam came with cleanliness and distancing oneself from dirty and filthy matters.
  2. That is is not permissible for someone to bathe in stationary water when he is junub (in a state of major ritual impurity).
  3. The permissibility of bathing in stationary water for the purposes of cooling of or purely for cleaning yourself.
  4. That if someone were to wash in flowing water to cleanse himself from the state of janaabah or for another reason – then this would be permissible
  5. Dawud az-Zaahiree rahimahullaah would say that defecation is permissible in stationary non-flowing water, and this is from the vilest things which the Zaahiriyyah can be criticised for.
  6. The general forbiddence of bathing in stationary water.
  7. The forbiddence of urinating in water then bathing in it.
  8. The forbiddence of urinating in water then taking from the water to bathe.
  9. The statement of the Zaahirees that it is permissible to urinate in a container then pour that into stationary water … (however) we say that the correct position is that there is no difference between urinating in it directly or urinating in a container then pouring it in.
  10. In the narration of Abu Dawud says that one should not combine urinating in stationary water and then bathe in it. However in the narration of Muslim it says that one should not bathe in such water (without the issue of urinating in it being mentioned.

[6]:

وَعَنْ رَجُلٍ صَحِبَ اَلنَّبِيَّ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏قَالَ: { نَهَى رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنْ تَغْتَسِلَ اَلْمَرْأَةُ بِفَضْلِ اَلرَّجُلِ, أَوْ اَلرَّجُلُ بِفَضْلِ اَلْمَرْأَةِ, وَلْيَغْتَرِفَا جَمِيعًا } أَخْرَجَهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ.‏ وَالنَّسَائِيُّ, وَإِسْنَادُهُ صَحِيحٌ

From one of the Companions of the Prophet who said: The Messenger of Allaah (ﷺ) forbade a woman to bathe with the water left over by a man and that a man should not bathe with the water left over by a woman (but instead) they should both take scoopfuls of the water together. [Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa’i and its chain of narrators is Sahih (authentic)]

———-

Saheeh

Sh Uthaymeen:

  1. The Prophet (ﷺ) directing to lofty manners
  2. The Prophet (ﷺ) guiding to that which is beneficial for the Ummah even in matters which one might feel shy to mention.
  3. That is it permissible for a husband and wife to bathe while naked in front of one another and to look at each other.
  4. That the husband should try to do everything which brings about closeness with his wife and which removes difficulty

 


[7]:

وَعَنْ اِبْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا; { أَنَّ اَلنَّبِيَّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-كَانَ يَغْتَسِلُ بِفَضْلِ مَيْمُونَةَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهَا } أَخْرَجَهُ مُسْلِمٌ.‏

Narrated Ibn “Abbas (radiyAllaahu’anhumaa): The Prophet (ﷺ) used to bath with the water left over by Maimuna (radiyAllaahu’anhaa) [Muslim reported it].

———-

Saheeh

Sh Uthaymeen:

The previous hadeeth says that a woman should not bathe with the water left by a man, and vice versa. However this hadeeth provides an exception – i.e.: that a man can bathe with the water left by a woman. 

Points of benefit:

  1. The Prophet sallAllaahu’alaihiwasallam had many wives, not for pleasure (as all except one, Aaishah, were previously married). However he wished to form a link with the various tribes of the Arabs. 
  2. His sallAllaahu’alaihiwasallam wives conveyed knowledge of how he lived and his sunnah to their relatives and thence to the Ummah. 
  3. The permissibility of clearly mentioning something which one would ordinarily be embarrassed about for the sake of conveying knowledge. 
  4. This is not considered to be revealing the private matters between spouses, rather it is conveying a shar’ee (legislational) ruling. 
  5. The humility of the Prophet sallAllaahu’alaihiwasallam. He didn’t stop his wives from bathing first. Rather he let them bathe and then used the water which remained. 

[8]:

وَلِأَصْحَابِ اَلسُّنَنِ”: { اِغْتَسَلَ بَعْضُ أَزْوَاجِ اَلنَّبِيِّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-فِي جَفْنَةٍ, فَجَاءَ لِيَغْتَسِلَ مِنْهَا, فَقَالَتْ لَهُ: إِنِّي كُنْتُ جُنُبًا, فَقَالَ: “إِنَّ اَلْمَاءَ لَا يُجْنِبُ” } وَصَحَّحَهُ اَلتِّرْمِذِيُّ, وَابْنُ خُزَيْمَةَ.‏”

And Ashab As-Sunan (compilers of the prophet’s sayings) reported that one of the wives of the Prophet (ﷺ) took bath from a vessel, then came the Prophet (ﷺ) and when he wanted to take bath from that (vessel), she said, “I was sexually impure” . He said, “Water does not become sexually impure” . [At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)].

———-

Saheeh

Sh Uthaymeen:

  1. The point made earlier that water is not affected  nor does it change from being purifying to just being pure in itself as a result of someone junub washing himself from it.
  2. Simply mentioning the cause without the action (i.e. she said that I was junub without mentioning that she washed from it). This shows that a woman being alone in the presence of some water is not an issue.
  3. Also that which was mentioned previously that a man can bathe with the water left over by a woman.
  4. Making ghusl with a small amount of water does not change the fact that it is still purifying.
  5. The beautiful way in which the Prophet sallAllaahu’alaihiwasallam taught.

[9]:

وَعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ طَهُورُ إِنَاءِ أَحَدِكُمْ إِذْ وَلَغَ فِيهِ اَلْكَلْبُ أَنْ يَغْسِلَهُ سَبْعَ مَرَّاتٍ, أُولَاهُنَّ بِالتُّرَابِ } أَخْرَجَهُ مُسْلِمٌ  .‏

Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiyAllaahu’anhu): Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “The cleansing of the utensil belonging to one of you, after it has been licked by a dog, is to wash it seven times, and using soil for cleaning at the first time.” [Muslim reported it] 

 

  وفي لفط له

فليرقه

Another version has: “he should spill the content”

وَلِلتِّرْمِذِيِّ: { أُخْرَاهُنَّ, أَوْ أُولَاهُنَّ بِالتُّرَابِ }‏ .‏

At-Tirmidhi’s version has “using soil at the first or last time” .

———-

Saheeh

Sh Uthaymeen:

  1. That the dog is impure. 
  2. The scholars have differed as to whether one should wash game which a dog has hunted for you. Some say that you should wash it in a manner similar to that for a utensil. Others say that this is not needed. The latter opinion is more correct as hunting with dogs was commonplace at the time of the Prophet sallAllaahu’alaihiwasallam and he didn’t tell people that they needed to wash it in this way. 
  3. The majority of scholars say that if a dog urinates or defacates in a utensil then you should wash it in a similar manner (to that when a dog drinks from it). However other scholars and the dhaahirees say that normal washing is enough. I say that it is safer to stick with the position of the majority in this matter. 
  4. Can something else be used instead of dust? Some say that only dust should be used whereas others say that you can use something else such as soap or chemicals to clean the utensil as it achieves the same objective of cleaning the impurity and its traces. 
  5. If a dog were to lick something else like your clothes or your shin then you should likewise wash it seven times, the first with dust. This is the same whether it is a wild or domesticated dog. 
  6. This covers any type of dog, large or small and whatever colour it is. 
  7. The impurity of a dog is a ‘high grade’ impurity. Whereas madhi (preseminal fluid) and urine from a boy exclusively fed breast milk are ‘low grade’ impurities which only require water to be sprinkled on them. The remaining impure substances are in between. 
  8. As a general rule the one who owns the vessel which a dog laps from is the one who should wash it. 
  9. That it forbidden to eat dogs.

[10]:

وَعَنْ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- أَنَّ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-قَالَ ‏-فِي اَلْهِرَّةِ‏-: { إِنَّهَا لَيْسَتْ بِنَجَسٍ, إِنَّمَا هِيَ مِنْ اَلطَّوَّافِينَ عَلَيْكُمْ } أَخْرَجَهُ اَلْأَرْبَعَةُ, وَصَحَّحَهُ اَلتِّرْمِذِيُّ.‏ وَابْنُ خُزَيْمَةَ .‏

Narrated Abu Qatada (radiyAllaahu’anhu): Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said about the cat that, “It is not unclean, but is one of those who intermingle with you.” [Reported by Al-Arba’a. At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)].

———-

Saheeh

Sh Uthaymeen:

  1. That when you see someone surprised for some reason then you should explain things so as to counter this. 
  2. That cats are pure even though they are forbidden to eat. (Normally anything that is forbidden to eat is impure). 
  3. Cats are not impure – so is this taken in an absolute sense? The answer is no (i.e. its urine, faeces and blood is still impure). 
  4. If a cat drinks from some water then it does not become impure. 
  5. There is no difference as to whether this cat has eaten something impure or not (because of the generality of the hadeeth). 
  6. That the presence of difficulty brings about a facilitation / concession. 
  7. That there is an allowance regarding impurities which are difficult to avoid. 
  8. That mice are considered pure. The proof is that they are included by tje statement “it is something which roams about amongst you”. 
  9. If an animal which is impermissible to eat (other than a cat), and which is only seen occasionally,  drinks from some water then it becomes impure. 
  10. Allaah the Mighty and Majestic’s Mercy upon the creation in that He lightens the matter for them as it is difficult to avoid.


[11]:

وَعَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: { جَاءَ أَعْرَابِيٌّ فَبَالَ فِي طَائِفَةِ اَلْمَسْجِدِ, فَزَجَرَهُ اَلنَّاسُ, فَنَهَاهُمْ اَلنَّبِيُّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-فَلَمَّا قَضَى بَوْلَهُ أَمَرَ اَلنَّبِيُّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-بِذَنُوبٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ; فَأُهْرِيقَ عَلَيْهِ.‏ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ .‏

Narrated Anas bin Malik (radiyAllaahu’anhu): A Bedouin came and urinated in one corner of the mosque and the people shouted at him, but Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) stopped them, and when he finished urinating, the Prophet (ﷺ) ordered for a bucket of water which was spilt over it [Agreed upon].
———-
Saheeh (agreed upon) 

Sh Uthaymeen:

  1. The ignorance of the bedouin and that they are people of ignorance. 
  2. That it is obligatory to clean / purify the floor of the masjid. 
  3. The forbiddence of urinating in the masjid. 
  4. The obligation of hastening to correct a wrong. 
  5. The beautiful way in which the Prophet (ﷺ) took care of his Ummah, because he prevented the Companions from stopping the bedouin man because this would have resulted in harm. 
  6. That the ground can only be purified with water not through the action of the sun or wind. (Some scholars say that the sun and wind can purify, but that the Prophet (ﷺ) wanted to purify the masjid promptly. 
  7. That cleaning the masjids from impurity is a collective obligation. 
  8. Application of the well known principle that if is not possible to correct a wrong except with a greater wrong, then one shouldn’t try and correct it. 
  9. That one who corrects a wrong should mention the reason why. 
  10. That one should treat everyone according to their level. 
  11. That urine is impure. 


[12]:

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